Soap is fat that has been denatured in such a way to create molecules that have a fat-shaped side and a water-shaped side. When washing, the fat side attaches to fat molecules, making them water soluble.
Most soap recipes are a combination of water, lye, and fat. Most recipes use coconut oil, olive oil, lard, or a mix of the three. If you were to make soap from 5lbs of fat, you would need to mix it with 11 oz. lye and 33 oz. water. Lye and water are always mixed at a 3:1 ratio.
First, slowly mix the lye and water together in an enamel or glass pot using a non-metal spoon. Mixing lye creates heat and fumes, and can cause serious chemical burns. Do the mixing outside while wearing gloves and safety goggles. Do not let lye come into contact with metal. Did I mention this stuff is dangerous? Let the mixture cool for at least a couple hours.
In a separate pot, heat the fat to 120-130 degrees Fahrenheit to melt the fat. Mix until the fats are fully combined, then slowly add the lye mixture. Stir until the mixture turns opaque and remove it from the heat. Dyes and essential oils can be added after you've taken the soap off the heat. Pour the soap into soap molds, and let cool overnight.
Posted 3690 day ago